Coming up with a vaccine is very sensitive since it requires a lot of keen design formula that that should have elements to fight a disease For a vaccine to meet its purpose in the right manner of functionality it should working such a manner that it fights the microbes that cause the disease without affecting or altering other elements of the body functionality. For a vaccine to be effective it must have so crucial characteristics such as the ability to fight the harmful elements in the body cells and not harm other cells that are not affected by the virus or bacterium without altering their functionality. For a support vaccine to be termed as suitable it should poses some level of compatibility with other medications that can be related to similar ailments and also at what part of the world is the medicine recommended for use are some of the issues that should be factored in when designing good vaccine support medication.
There are five main categories of vaccines which are: attenuated vaccine, toxic vaccine, conjugate vaccine, inactive vaccine and subunit vaccine which are discussed broadly below. These type of vaccine is developed in the vaccine where the real microbe in weakened in the lab to such a point that it cannot harm the body cells causing illness where the real behavior of the microbe is studied so as to find a suitable vaccine. By developing a microbe in the lab it is to create a similar environment of that which the virus or bacteria thrives on so as to learn how it actually behaves in the body. The long run aim is to rate the amount of antibodies that the body can possibly release to fight the microbe and how to design a drug that can fight the disease with a few doses. Some example of such vaccine support diseases are smallpox vaccine, yellow fever, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox and rotavirus.
Harmful chemicals are produced by bacteria that is toxic to the body cells. The toxic produced by the bacteria becomes harmful to the body. It has been learnt from scientific findings that inactive toxins can be treated with formalin, a solution of formaldehyde and sterilized water as vaccine. After the body is immunized it learns how to fight the natural toxic substance by releasing antibodies that fight the toxic substance and finally stop its production. The common toxics produced by the body are tetanus and diphtheria.
Thirdly, when designing a conjugate vaccine the scientists link toxoids or antigens from a microbe to the immune system to recognize it to the polysaccharides where this linkage helps immature immune system like that of an infant to react to polysaccharide coating and defend that body against diseases caused by bacterium. When there are sugar coating on a bacterium that ensures that bacterium antigens protect the immune system of newborn does not react to bacterium antibodies is known as polysaccharides.